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Jean-Paul Akayesu (born ) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican . External links[edit]. ICTR case documents for Jean Paul Akayesu. Warning: This case deals with topics that are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse. If you have. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million Tutsi in Rwanda in Akayesu was mayor.2 A trial chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for.

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Genocide is distinct from other crimes inasmuch as it embodies a special intent or dolus specialis. He mainly argued that, at the time of the genocide, he had not been in a position of authority and had never had the means to stop the massacres.

Killing members of the group; 2. Concerning the Zkayesu third ground of appeal, the Appeals Chamber clarified that Article 3 of the Statute does not require that all crimes against humanity enumerated therein be akaeysu with a discriminatory intent and that said Article restricts the Tribunal’s jurisdiction to crimes committed “as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population” on discriminatory grounds para.

The Gacaca courts were composed of elected popular assemblies, made up of non-professional judges. Individual Criminal Responsibility For the purposes of an international criminal Tribunal which is trying individuals, it is not sufficient merely to affirm that Common Article 3 and parts of Article 4 of Additional Protocol II — which comprise the subject-matter jurisdiction of Cse 4 of the Statute — form part of international customary law.

In Rwanda, the bourgmestre is the highest authority in a commune. An analysis of the provisions of the Statute is therefore not conclusive. This was in line with the view of the ICTY Appeals Chamber stipulating that Common Article 3 beyond doubt formed part of customary international law, and further that there exists a corpus of general principles and norms on internal armed conflict embracing Common Article 3 but having a much greater scope.

Jean-Paul Akayesu – TRIAL International

Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 3. Pierre-Richard Prosper was the lead prosecutor. He deserted the French Army in to join the National Done in English and French, the French text being authoritative.


The Tribunal unanimously found fase defendant guilty of genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, and the crimes against humanity of extermination, murder, torture, rape, and other inhumane acts. If the application of international humanitarian law depended solely on the discretionary judgment of the parties to the conflict, in most cases there would be a tendency for the conflict to be minimized by the parties thereto.

The duties and responsibilities of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, hence, will normally apply only to individuals of all ranks belonging to the armed forces under the military command of either of the belligerent parties, or to individuals who were legitimately mandated and expected, as public officials or agents or persons otherwise holding public authority or de akayesi representing the Government, to support or fulfil the war efforts.

Ratione personae Two distinct issues arise with respect to personal jurisdiction over serious violations of Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II — the class of victims and the class of perpetrators. He was subject only to the prefect.

The Court found that the crimes Therefore, the Appeals Chamber rejected it paras. He encouraged criminal acts and gave out orders for people to be killed. Akayesu ordered them away, adding that even if he had bullets, he would not waste them on Tutsi women. Qkayesu we assume that the acts committed by Akayesu were prohibited under Rwandan criminal law?

Indiscussions began under the direction of the President of the Republic of Rwanda about the possible use of traditional courts to support the ordinary Rwandan judicial system and the ICTR. Accordingly, the Appeals Chamber finds that the Trial Chamber erred on a point of law in restricting the application of common Article 3 to a certain category of persons, as defined by the Trial Chamber.

Learning from other institutions Significance. The most interesting aspect of this case resides in the recognition of the crime of rape as a form of genocide. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 5.

In the opinion of the Chamber, it is clear that the authors of such egregious violations must incur individual criminal responsibility for their deeds.


Trial Watch would like to remind its users that any person charged by national or international authorities is presumed innocent until proven guilty.

The conventional definition of racial group is based on the hereditary physical traits often identified with a geographical region, akaesu of linguistic, cultural, national or religious factors. Other factors, such as the scale of atrocities committed, their general nature, in a region or a country, or furthermore, the fact of deliberately and systematically targeting victims on account of their membership of a particular group, while excluding the members of other groups, can enable the Chamber to infer the genocidal intent of a particular act.

Paras akaesu Applicability of Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II The four Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocol I thereto generally apply to international armed conflicts only, whereas Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions extends a minimum threshold of humanitarian protection as well to all persons affected by a non-international caase, a protection which was further developed and enhanced in the Additional Protocol II.

Jean-Paul Akayesu

Colonialism Dies Hard appearing to deny the extent of the genocide were widely publicized. In each paragraph charging genocide, a crime recognized by Article 2 of the Statute of the Tribunal, the alleged acts or omissions were committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic or racial group. Both the Accused and the Prosecution appealed against the Trial judgment. To so add Additional Protocol II should not, in the opinion of the Chamber, be dealt with as a mere expansive enunciation of a ratione materiae which has been pre-determined by the Security Council.

Article 4 of the Statute would be applicable irrespective of the Additional Protocol II question, so long as the akajesu were covered, at the very least, by the customary norms of Common Article 3.