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Desarrollo de un programa computacional para simular las predicciones del modelo de elementos reemplazados (REM) de condicionamiento pavloviano. DEL CONDICIONAMIENTO PAVLOVIANO DE MIEDO. USANDO REGRESIÓN ROBUSTA. WITHIN-SESSION ANALYSIS OF THE EXTINCTION. OF PAVLOVIAN . CONDICIONAMIENTO PAVLOVIANO EXCITATORIO. No description. by. Fernando Cunalata. on 28 May Comments (0). Please log in to add your.

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Animal models of psychopathology: Historical models and the pavlovian contribution. Laborda 1, 2Gonzalo Miguez 1Cody W. Research using non-human animals as experimental subjects to understand human behavior have been based ocndicionamiento the Darwinian notion of continuity between species.


In this framework, we find analogous models to understand human biology and behavior in nonhuman species. In the scientific study of psychology, animal models have proven to be an effective tool for understanding both normal and abnormal human behaviors. In the present review, we discuss how animal models have been used in investigating psychopathology. After reviewing three historical animal models of specific psychopathologies, we discuss how phenomena discovered while studying Pavlovian conditioning have contributed to our understanding of ckndicionamiento etiology and maintenance of human psychopathology, how the Pavlovian tradition has contributed to the development of better ways to treat these behavioral disorders, and more generally, how Pavlovian phenomena are implicated in almost all interactions between an organism and its environment.

Pavlovian conditioning, animal models, experimental psychopathology. Historical Models and the Pavlovian Contribution. I believe that an understanding of other species and of simple processes is relevant to the understanding of complex processes in man. X In this review we present aigu-ments in line with this sentiment expressed by Seligman when introducing his book on learned helplessness, which provides a widely cited animal condciionamiento of depression.

Animal research has been part and parcel since the very beginnings of the scientific study of psychology, and it has been of pivotal importance when searching for basic determinants of the behavior of all organisms, including humans Pavlov, ; Skinner, ; Thorndike, As Domjanpp. In addition to these reasons, we think that an important motivation for using non-human analogues pavlkviano study human psychopathology rests in the fact that the most effective psychotherapeutic treatments available today were derived from basic principles discovered in the animal laboratory, which supports the effectiveness of translating results from the animal laboratory to clinical settings e.

In our opinion, this result is not surprising considering that treatments based on basic research begin a step ahead of other types of treatments given its solid foundations when being evaluated pavloviamo randomized clinical trials.

In agreement with Mustaca and many others e. Unfortunately, the contributions of animal research to the understanding of normal and abnormal human behavior have not always been recognized.

In fact, pavkoviano often presented important results from animal research as having been achieved using humans as experimental participants. The only exception was in learning and conditioning texts, where the authors explicitly stated that most of the advances have been made through studying the behavior of non-human animals. In a similar tenet, Overmier considered surprising that, even after so many contributions of animal research to applied settings e.

But when asked separately if they pavpoviano use systematic desensitization in their practice, a huge percentage of them answer Yes ” p.

Considering that the development of the systematic desensitization technique has its roots in Wolpe’s studies in relation to what is known as experimental neurosis in cats, the answers given by the polled psychologists evidenced an ignorance concerning the rationale beneath the techniques they often use in their professional activities.

But what is the basis of applying the results from animal research to humans? The Darwinian proposition that all organisms share a common ancestor e.

In line with his early proposal, Darwin himself initiated comparative studies when investigating emotional expression across species. The idea of humans being evolutionarily connected with all the other animals can be of great help when trying to understand who we are both biologically and behaviorally.

CONDICIONAMIENTO CLÁSICO by Tracy Sánchez Ferrer on Prezi

Interestingly, the usefulness of animal models in understanding physical illness not to imply that behavioral disorders ultimately lack a material substratesuch as flu and cancer, and in developing cures for them is obvious, and few would disagree that these types of models are essential for high-quality medical research.

In fact, few people would agree to be treated for any physical illness using techniques or medicines that had not been properly developed and tested unless they are looking for alternative treatments when no scientifically validated treatment is available. Likewise, most people would reject any attempt of testing new treatments for physical illness using human participants if such treatments have not already been tested with successful and rigorous experimental trials using nonhuman animals.


However, when applying the same logic to behavioral disorders, such as depression, phobias, and addictions, many people have trouble seeing animal models as a significant scientific tool.

This contrasts with the fact that in psychology only a minority of the numerous types of treatments available at least available types of treatments already in the s as iterated by Karasu, is based in results from such rigorous research e. This situation is worrisome, as stated by Overmier ; a psychology with no interest in the scientific study of behavior is like a medicine without concern for its physiological consequences.

In the present article an argument in favor of the use of animal research in the development of psychotherapy is presented. In the next section we review three historical animal models of psychopathology, and then the contributions of the study of Pavlovian learning to the understanding of the etiology, maintenance, treatment, relapse and relapse preventionand prevention of human psychopathology are examined.

To our knowledge, no such review has been presented in the recent years. Here we describe three of the clearest historical examples of animal models of psychopathology, selectively chosen from previous reviews and primary sources. Pavlov and his colleagues e.

International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy

Among other issues, they were interested in evaluating whether neurotic behavior could be experimentally induced in animals so its determinants could be studied and therapeutic approaches developed.

Pavlov’s animal model of neurotic behavior was denoted ‘experimental neurosis’. In Shenger-Krestinikova’s experiment, a dog received training in which powdered food was delivered every time a visual cindicionamiento a circle was projected on to a screen.

The animal promptly began salivating to the presentation of the circle. After conditioned responding to the circle was robust, a stimulus discrimination task began. In this phase the animal kept receiving food each time the circle was presented and, in addition, nonreinforced trials of a second stimulus an ellipse with a ratio of the semi-axes 2: The dog readily learned this simple discrimination, which was evidenced when comparing the amount of saliva secreted in the presence of the reinforced stimulus the circle relative to the nonreinforced condicionamento the ellipse.

In a third and final pavoviano phase, the animal received discriminative training between the circle and ellipses that gradually approached a 1: The animal managed to discriminate the circle from ellipses with 2: Moreover, what was once a quiet dog began eliciting emotional responses indicative of distress i.

The condicioanmiento quiet dog began to squeal in its stand, kept wriggling about, tore off with its teeth the apparatus for mechanical stimulation of the skin, and bit through pavlovlano tubes connecting the animal’s room with the observer, a behaviour which never happened before.

On being taken into the experimental room the dog dondicionamiento barked violently, which was also contrary to its usual custom; in condiionamiento it presented all the symptoms of a condition of acute neurosis p. Krasnogorskyextended Pavlov’s studies of neurotic dogs, this time with children as experimental participants.

His studies commenced at the beginning of the nineteen hundreds, anticipating Watson and Rayner’s study of fear conditioning in infants. Measuring the motor reflex of the opening of the mouth to food delivery, Krasnogorsky found that a 6-year-old child could easily master an auditory discrimination between 92 and beats per minute bpmbetween and bpm, and between and bpm all produced by metronomeswhen all presentations of the bpm were followed by food and the presentations of the pavoviano cues were not.

However, after the discrimination between vs. In fact, when the child was trained to set apart from bpm, the experiment needed to be discontinued because the child began crying often and was aggressive with peers.

Also, the child stopped showing discriminatory behaviors learned earlier in the experiment. Krasnogorsky’s description of his participant’s behavior and Pavlov’s description of his dog’s behavior after difficult discriminations are strikingly similar. Pavlov’s interest in psychopathology did not stop at producing experimental neuroses, he and his students also tried to treat neurotic dogs experiments by Condicionamienyo, in Pavlov, and children experiments by Krasnogorsky, with bromide i.

Unfortunately, the treatment was mostly ineffective in releasing subjects from the symptoms of experimentally induced neurosis Plaud, An analysis by Mineka and Kihlstrom indicates that the procedures for creating experimental neurosis e.

Pavlov’s studies on experimental neurosis are important not only because of their specific results, but because they illustrated a way in which human psychopathology could be studied with high experimental control in the animal laboratory. Furthermore, Pavlov’s research on experimental neurosis highlighted the role of “environmentally-based conditioning procedures in producing and eliminating neurotic behavior patterns” Plaud,p.

For example, Wolpe’s, experimental, theoretical, and clinical work is a direct descendent of Pavlov’s tradition. Wolpedeveloped an animal model of the etiology of anxiety disorders and a treatment to cure them based on basic results found in the animal laboratory.


In the basic preparation, cats received a few electric shocks in an experimental chamber immediately after an auditory cue was presented. The animals responded to the shock with fear responses e. Of importance, Wolpereported that nonreinforced exposure to the training context i. Likely, Wolpe’s failure to find an effect of extinction treatment alone depended of his specific preparation and parameters.

Given that exposure alone was found to be ineffective in treating Wolpe’s anxious cats, Wolpe ; see also Jones, evaluated whether conjoint exposure to the feared experimental chamber and the elicitation of a response contrary to anxiety i.

After depriving fearful cats of food for 48 or 72 hours, he fed them in the fear-inducing situation Wolpe, Some of the cats ate and were cured, but others did not eat and were not cured. For those reluctant subjects, a more gradual approach was used. These animals were gradually exposed to, and fed in, fear-inducing situations, beginning with the less frightening ones i.

After the cats stopped exhibiting anxiety to the experimental situation, they were still afraid of the auditory cue that had initially been paired with the shocks. To decrease this fear, a similar approach was used.

The animals were fed at a certain distance from the continuously sounding auditory cue, and then gradually food was delivered closer and closer to the locus of the sound, until the animals eventually stopped presenting signs of anxiety to the auditory cue.

Wolpe suggested that the same technique that decreased fear reactions in non-human animals could also cure anxious patients.

However, to be historically fair, it was Mary Cover Jones who, many years earlier, and under the advice of John B. Watson, firstly treated fear in kids by pairing appetitive stimuli i.

In spite of not been the first to apply this basic principle to clinical situations, it was Wolpewho delineated and publicized the basic steps or phases in treating an anxious patient using this type of technique. In recent years, the study of counterconditioning has been expanded and its benefits qualified. Bouton and colleagues e. These results closely parallel results from the extinction literature Bouton,and suggest that, as with extinction, counterconditioning an association does not destroy the originally learned information.

Wolpe’s research is a prime example of how to translate basic research with animals to clinical application. His pioneering work has been fundamental for the development of many exposure-based approaches to behavioral disorders e. Overmier, Maier, and Seligman’s Helpless Dogs. Of central importance here, unpredictability and uncontrollability are crucial concepts for one of the most studied animal models of depression, so-called learned helplessness e.

Overmier and Seligman evaluated possible determinants of the interference produced by inescapable shocks in the subsequent acquisition of escape and avoidance responses e. They trained dogs in four different conditions.

In phase 1, the control group did not receive unsignaled inescapable shocks, while three experimental sets of dogs received different numbers of unsignaled inescapable shocks of different intensities and densities. In phase 2, all dogs were trained to escape and avoid signaled shocks in a two-way shuttle box. In addition, failures to escape in phase 2 were common in the groups trained with inescapable shocks, but not in the control condition. Overmier and Seligman hypothesized that helplessness is learned when an organism is taught that its responses are not effective in controlling aversive consequences.

Furthermore, Seligman and Maier evaluated whether uncontrollability over aversive experiences was a causal factor in learned helplessness. They compared the escape and avoidance performance of three groups of dogs in the shuttle box.

Dogs in Group Normal learned to escape and avoid aversive stimulation in the shuttle box rapidly and with only a few errors. Critically, dogs that received a pretraining phase in which they had experience controlling aversive stimulation i. Considering that Groups Yoked and Escape received equivalent aversive stimulation these groups differed only in that dogs in the Escape group learned to terminate shocks and dogs in the Yoked group did notit is likely that condicilnamiento experienced uncontrollability in the pretraining phase, and not the aversive experience itself, was causal in producing learned helplessness.

Seligman and Maier also asked whether pre-training with escapable shocks in the shuttle box prevents the usual detrimental effects of inescapable shocks in the harness.