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The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard (–). L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only.

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Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard

Thus, they lacked the authoritarianism of the northern emirs. The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Mandste as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard —the best known of the British lugagd officers to serve in Africa. Lugard ran the country whilst spending half each year in England, where he could promote himself and was distant from realities in Africa, where subordinates had to delay decisions on many matters until he returned.

The Igbo, for instance, lived in fragmented societies and did not develop a monarchical political institution. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikisource. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if mqndate clarifications are needed. No greater contrast could be imagined than that between the vast untamed expanse of Northern Nigeria and the small island of Hong Kong with its highly civilized Chinese and sophisticated commercial British community.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. His mission was to amalgamate the two colonies into one.

A Case Study of Uganda, c. His name is especially associated with Nigeriawhere he served as lugafd commissioner —06 and kandate and governor-general — Thank You for Your Contribution! Lugard was commissioned into the 9th Foot East Norfolk Regiment injoining the second battalion in India and serving in the following campaigns:. He was recalled from Ngami by the British government and sent to West Africa, where he was commissioned to raise a native force to protect British interests in the hinterland of the Lagos Colony and Nigeria against French aggression.


He had submitted a proposal for the Convention to the British government.

He succeeded in that enterprise in spite of great hardships—including a poisoned arrow in his head. He became the first chancellor, despite a cold receptions from the imperial Colonial Office and local British companies, such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.

These chiefs would lose their political autonomy and become subordinated to the authority of colonial administrative agents such as the resident or the district officer. He loathed the educated and sophisticated Africans of the coastal regions.

He was knighted in and raised to the peerage in As custodian of Africa’s resources, however, imperial Europe was committed to Africa’s development and the advancement and welfare of its people. Some of his justifications included spreading Christianity and ending ‘barbarism’ such as human sacrifice. The limitations of indirect rule were demonstrated in Southern Nigeria where Lugard extended the system after the amalgamation of northern and southern protectorates in Retrieved from ” https: It was in Northern Nigeria, however, that the system had its most profound expression.

Lugard, assisted by his indefatigable wife, Flora Shaw, concocted a legend which warped understanding of him, Nigeria and colonialism for decades. Modes of British Imperial Control of Africa: During his tenure, Lugard proposed to return Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the rented New Territories in perpetuity.

Initial difficulty of European administration. Continuity was vital because Africans trusted foreigners reluctantly. In the southeast, indirect rule proved utterly unworkable among the Igbo and other groups.

Frederick Lugard

Olufemi Taiwo argues that Lugard actually blocked qualified Africans, who had been educated in Britain, from playing an active role in the development of the country; he distrusted white “intellectuals” as much as black ones – believing that the principles they were taught in the universities were often wrong.


Arounda group of Swahili traders under Mlozi bin Kazbadema established trading bases in the north-west sector of Lake Malawiincluding a stockade at Chilumba on the lake from where ivory and slaves could be shipped across the lake. The emirs were highly autocratic. Contact our editors with your feedback. Kalinga,The Karonga War: In —06 he had seen no other way to control the vast population in northern Nigeria, whose rulers he had defeated, and he had subsequently been promoted governor-general —19 of a united Nigeria, which was by far the most important British colony in Africa.

Lugard, chose an emblem to appear on various colonial flags. Governor of Hong Kong — Decentralization and continuity ljgard only be achieved if cooperation existed within the administrative chains, especially between the provincial staff and local rulers. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. As governor-general of a unified Nigeria, Lugard hoped that the system would work in the southern provinces. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

To the end of his life, deeply saddened by the death of his wife inhe worked almost incessantly in his secluded house on a survey of matters affecting the interests of native races both inside and outside the British Empire.

Frederick Lugard | British colonial administrator |

It was an immense task to unify their administration. Hong Kong University Press. The White Tribe of Kenya. During this period he served first on the Temporary Slavery Commission and was involved in organising the Slavery Convention.