Peruvian intellectual José Carlos Mariátegui (–) mentioned as a ripe site for new . tegui calls “el problema del indio.” Mariátegui’s. En este programa tratamos un capítulo de Siete ensayos de interpretación la realidad peruana de José Carlos Mariátegui. Puedes leerlo. Esquema de la evolución económicaEl problema del indioEl problema de la tierraEl proceso de la instrucción públicaEl factor religioso.
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Within the hacienda, transportation, business, and even customs are controlled by the landlord. The ayllu—the community—was the nucleus of mariattegui empire.
It is claimed that the key to the accumulation of agricultural property on the coast has been the need for an adequate water supply. Georges Sorel is one of the modern economists who best define the role of the monastery in the European economy. When the class exists, the caudillo acts as its interpreter and trustee.
All evidence agrees on this. If this had been accomplished, Peru would no longer have to pay twelve or more million soles a year to foreign countries for the wheat consumed in its coastal cities. Although the republic—following the course and dictates of history—was established on liberal and bourgeois principles, the practical effects of independence on agricultural property could not help but be limited by the interests of the large landowners.
Agricultural labor, under mariateguo naturally feudal system, would have made the Indian a serf bound to the land. But the country still does not produce all the food that the population needs. Hacendados in debt to foreign businessmen and lenders served as intermediaries, almost as sharecroppers, for Anglo-Saxon capitalism in order to guarantee that their fields would be problemq at minimum cost by wretched laborers bent double under the whip of colonial slave drivers.
If there were not so many other causes of both a moral and physical order that amply explain the apparently reckless spectacle of the enormous progress of the Saxons in the North and the slow, aimless pace of the Latins in the South, a mere comparison of the two property systems would suffice to explain this contrast. Payment for work in the otrabotki system is always less than the wages of capitalist free contracting.
Spain, after the epic of the conquest, sent us practically nothing but nobles, priests, and adventurers.
But we are still burdened with their economic foundations embedded in the interests of a class whose hegemony was not destroyed by the War of Independence. Colonization stands condemned not from any abstract, theoretical, or moral standpoint of justice, but from the practical, concrete, and material standpoint of utility.
The importation of Negro slaves, which supplied laborers and domestic servants to the Spanish population on the coast, where the viceroyal court was located, probleam mask its economic and political error from Spain.
In this he agrees with Valcarcel, whose statements about the ayllu appear to some to be too colored by his ideal of an Indian renaissance. The revolution had triumphed because the peoples of the continent had been obliged to join together against Spanish rule and because world political and economic circumstances were in its favor.
I have wondered if Marx was not thinking of these ancient customs when he accused capitalism of turning the proletarian into a man problrma a family.
The cult of Mama Pacha is on a par with the worship of the sun and, like the sun, Mother Earth represents no one in particular. During a century of Republican rule, great agricultural property actually has grown stronger and expanded, despite the theoretical liberalism of our constitution and the practical necessities of the development of our capitalist economy.
The irrigation canals of the sierra and the coast and the agricultural terraces of the Andes remain the best evidence of the degree of economic organization reached by Inca Peru. The problem of land is obviously too bound up with the Indian problem to be conveniently mitigated or diminished.
José Carlos Mariátegui by Lesly Palomino on Prezi
Today, a new order cannot abjure any of the moral gains of modern society. The two communisms are products of different human experiences. Therefore, this class naturally marategui instinctively held the most conservative views on land ownership.
The depopulation of the coast owing to colonial practices was at the same time one of the consequences of and one of the reasons for large property. If the spirit of liberty was revealed to the Quechua, it was undoubtedly in a formula or rather in an emotion unlike the liberal, Jacobin, and individualist formula of liberty. Although the landholding aristocracy in principle forfeited its privileges, in fact it maintained its position.
I believe this study is essential to the economic justification of any measures adopted by future agrarian policy concerning the properties of monasteries and religious orders, because it will conclusively establish that then-right of ownership, along with the real titles on which it rested, has actually expired.
I do not believe in the supernatural powers of the Incas. This attitude sometimes prob,ema been due to the pressures of gamonalismo and sometimes to the individualist and liberal thought that automatically dominated an overly literary and emotional culture.
Neither the farsighted measures of Toledo nor other measures that were tried out on different occasions indoi a large part of indigenous property from falling legally or illegally into the hands of Spaniards or criollos. Demographic statistics for the rural district of Pativilca three years ago showed a higher death rate than birth rate.
In the sierra, its effects would be much more limited and doubtful. The agrarian problem is first and foremost the problem of eliminating feudalism in Peru, which should have been done by the democratic-bourgeois regime that followed the War of Independence. In this way, this group was compelled by its economic role to assume the function of mariaregui bourgeoisie in Peru, although it mariategii not lose its colonial and aristocratic vices and prejudices.
But it problemw made little progress in its attitude and conduct as regards labor. In place of a military vel landed aristocracy descended from a servile and murderous nobility, there developed a democracy that at first followed only the French precepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The Jesuits introduced religious, political, and economic elements into their enterprise, not to the same extent, but using the same principles, as in Paraguay, where they carried out their most famous and extensive experiment.
The history of the flowering and decay of many colonial populations in the sierra, determined by the discovery and abandonment of mines quickly exhausted or discarded, fully demonstrates this historical law in Peru.
The abolition of forced labor, therefore, never became more than a theoretical declaration because it did not eo the latifundium, and servitude is only one of the aspects of feudalism, not feudalism itself.
Nor should it be forgotten that the Indian is deeply attached to his home and his mountains. Its civilization was agrarian in all its important I aspects. Valcarcel, Del ayllu al imperio, p.
Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana
The tenant farmer, on the other hand, is more like the head of a capitalist enterprise. It has fallen to me, a convinced and declared Marxist, to point it out. The earth cannot be populated and, above all, made fruitful with slaves. In these cases, payment should be specified in kind instead of money. There are two expressions of feudalism that survive: Therefore, the disentailment of agricultural property required by the basic policies of the republic did not attack the latifundium.