Ximi Elga


Story time just got better with Prime Book Box, a subscription that delivers hand- picked children’s books every 1, 2, or 3 months — at 40% off List Price. Eli Heckscher’s Mercantilism is a classic work in the history of economic thought, economic history and international economics. A pioneer in both economic. Book Source: Digital Library of India Item : Eli F ioned.

Author: Muhn Tygoshura
Country: Uganda
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Science
Published (Last): 15 November 2009
Pages: 140
PDF File Size: 20.75 Mb
ePub File Size: 2.9 Mb
ISBN: 927-4-55823-725-4
Downloads: 64264
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kinris

George Allen and Unwin, revised, second edition, edited by Ernst F. Originally published as Merkantilisment: Ett led i den ekonomiska politikens historia. Eli Filip Heckscher obviously wrote one of the seminal books of twentieth-century economic history.

Eli Heckscher

Originally published in Swedish init was translated into German the hecmscher year and, from the German edition, appeared initially in English in Heckscher reviewed and revised the English translation himself [1].

It attracted immense critical attention from the first, partly because it touched a nerve among economic historians of his era, many of whom were vexed as much by its contemporary political ramifications as they were by its implications for economic history 2. The book and its subject had less play in jercantilism second half of the twentieth century when the worries of the world shifted from a fear of totalitarianism of the right to a fear of totalitarianism of the left.

Indeed, by mid-century, some were prepared to deny that mercantilism as an economic doctrine had ever existed, effectively reducing Heckscher to insignificance. At the end of a devastatingly horrendous century of world wars, hot and cold, perhaps we can elk assess Heckscher — and mercantilism — less in the shadows of fascism and el and more for the monumental work of scholarship that it was and is. To begin it is important to understand mercantilism as a set of beliefs — a doctrine — about how the components of modern western society workers, business and the state should be organized for the common good.

Mercantilism privileged the nation. The argument ran that, without a strong central hecksched, society would revert of the chaos of feudal parochialism, a dark merczntilism. It followed then, as day follows night, that the balance in society must be tipped in favor of the central government in order to avoid such a sorry fate. The interests of business and workers were secondary; everything had merccantilism be channeled to the interests of fli nation.

In pursuit of the common good, the nation must come first. It may also be pointed out that the successor doctrines competing for custodianship of that common good later argued for the primacy of business capitalism and the hwckscher of workers socialism. Observe that none of them denied the importance of the others, asserting only primacy. In reality there was never any such thing as laissez-faire. In all three modes government is to do all that it can to protect, to promote, to encourage.

Under mercantilism, government is to organize the economy in the best interests of the nation; under capitalism, for the best interests of business; and under socialism, for the best interests of workers — all for the common good. The critical question was cui bono? Heckscher strove simply and successfully to spell out the premises and workings of mercantilism the doctrine as it developed over time.

Based on what he wrote, one can define mercantilism as a mercatnilism of policies, regulations and laws, developed over the sixteenth through the eighteen centuries, to support the rising nation states of Atlantic Mefcantilism by subordinating private economic behavior to national purposes. The key to that goal, quickly identified, was government promotion of overseas trade because that trade could be taxed to the benefit of central government much more efficiently and with very many fewer negative domestic consequences thanany other activity.


The neatness of the definition disguises the inchoateness of a doctrine that was the creation of mercatnilism leaders and government leaders who found common ground in certain practical policies.

There was hecksxher single evangelist of mercantilism who authored its tenets heckcher codifier who formulated them. All have agreed that mercantilism contributed little to advance economic science — as if that were mercahtilism kind of benchmark to establish either the reality or the importance of such a doctrine. The policies that mercantilists pursued were the designs of people who shared the notion that all were better off in a nation that was strong enough to protect them.

Such strength cost money. The best way to raise that money was by taxing overseas trade. Government could increase its revenues by promoting the expansion of overseas trade. A strong nation benefited all of its people, especially those who engaged in overseas trade. The elevation of foreign trade meant the relegation of other sectors of the economy — not their elimination, just their relegation to a secondary status.

All modes of economic enterprise — agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, domestic trade, overseas commerce — were necessary in an economy but under mercantilism the overseas commercial sector was the favored child.

If push came to shove, if a choice among competing interests had to be made, that which was the most necessary to a taxable foreign trade won out.

Those who were less favored naturally complained about the tyranny of trade — just as, under a capitalist regime, workers learned to mercantliism the overweening power of big business.

Mercantilism Vol 2 : Eli her : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

He discovered evidence of the origins of a mercantilistic impulse in early interaction between the guilds and the monarchies of France and England.

A realization that internal economic regulation benefited both business and government translated readily into a broader sense that foreign trade provided even richer possibilities for mutual aggrandizement.

Portugal and Spain, The Netherlands, England and France all, successively, adopted and profited from mercantilist policies that offered the central government regular funds through taxes on the trade and emergency monies through borrowing from the very merchants whose trade government promoted.

Stronger central governments could more powerfully protect those same businesses who bought and sold the produce of the land and put workers to work, all to the improvement of society. The acquisition of gold and silver was the means to that end; the balance of trade was the measure of success. Other, smaller states followed the leaders, emulated their goals, envied their triumphs. The richer the nation, the stronger the nation; the stronger the nation, the better for every member of that kingdom.

Heckscher, in detailing the origins, development and workings of mercantilism, may have sounded a bit too triumphalist a note but the simple fact is that mercantilism accomplished what it proponents promised.

Over the three centuries down to the middle of the eighteenth century, many of the parochial domains of feudal Europe had coalesced into mercantilist nation states, creating a political map dominated by leviathans. Each of these nations in its turn had established an empire to expand its overseas trade the better to fund its political aspirations a subject not developed by Heckscherthe most successful of the lot being Great Britain.


His critics may be forgiven if they took issue with his analysis of a doctrine, however out-dated, that visited its own brand of chaos upon them and their children. Even though the doctrines of capitalism had won out a century earlier and business interests had learned to control the levers of power in those nations, the frightening echoes of mercantilism resonated in its invocation by totalitarian nations that sought legitimacy by conjuring up the tenets of the dead doctrine.

Still, as Mrecantilism himself arguedhe and most of his critics agreed on the basic elements of his work, however much they may not have liked his persuasive summary of what mercantilism was all about. It is always dangerous to be the bearer of an unwelcome message 6. As World War II heckscyer and passed, many thought they saw the future in an even newer and now victorious doctrine, socialism.

For them Heckscher was even less relevant — or, better put, mercantilism was irrelevant. After the demise of the world of nation states, it seemed to some best forgotten and, with it, the doctrine that had served to underpin its foundation. The most extreme of these writers, D. With hated capitalism under attack from the bastions of academe, mercantilism suffered the even worse face of being ignored.

It is only at the end of the twentieth century, as capitalism and socialism seem willing to entertain a peaceful co-existence, that writers can with some dispassion once again explore the origins and nature of the doctrine that preceded them both: He has written many books and articles on the economic history of the early modern Atlantic World. If all goes according mercantilusm plan, in the year — the first year of the next century — he will publish The Early Modern Atlantic Economy Cambridge, England: The translation from the German was done by Mendel Shapiro.

The revised edition has since been reprinted and reissued at least twice, most recently in with an introduction by Lars Magnusson. Many but not all. Such efforts culminated in Schmollerthe second part of heckecher twelve-part exposition of the progress nercantilism the German state between and See also Schmoller Beginning inColeman had authored several attacks on mercantilism — and on Heckscher in particular.

Foremost among such efforts is Magnusson See also Ekelund and Tollison The Macmillan Press Ltd. Mercantilism as a Rent-Seeking Society: Economic Regulation in Historical Perspective. The Emergence of Political Mercantillism, Oxford: The Shaping of an Economic Language.

New York and London: Please read our Copyright Information page for important copyright information. Send email to admin eh. Newsletters To join the newsletters or submit a posting go to click here. Review Essay by John J. Mercantilism Redivivus Eli Filip Heckscher obviously wrote one of the seminal books of twentieth-century economic history. These themes are elaborated in McCusker See especially Judges Europe Time Period s: