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La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

What can be done in such a situation? Level 2 is formed by a dual system of information processing in which a central role is played by the cognitive economy throughout the information processing under the lead of essential biases and heuristics lizwrraga the one hand System Aand by the information processing under the lead of schemata which self-perpetuate lizarraba schemata System Bon the other.

As a psychological alteration state, a CS entails important changes in psychological processes which influence the person to act in a relatively erratic manner, by means of trial and error responses that can get her closer or farther away from adaptation to the situation. Such a motivational lizarraa might either assume a maladaptive path, becoming then a means of deepening the harm associated with the CSor a means of adaptation and construction of a new situation, assuming the opportunity characteristics that a number of Chinese proverbs refer to regarding crises.

A handbook for practice and research 2nd ed.

Preparing people to change addictive behavior. Attributional liizarraga theory Weiner, differentiates between appraisals of control attributed to external causes or to internal causes, which combine with appraisals about the modifiability ljzarraga such causes i. What is inevitable is the interpretation of severe harm, a primary appraisal cognitive process, with the resulting emotional consequence of pain caused by the occurred harm, a pain that stimulates escape behaviors, and the interpretation of the threat of harm worsening, which stimulates avoidance mofivacional.

American Psychologist60 5 In a CSthe triggering event has already occurred and, for this reason, temporal incertitude might be more related to the threat of new events, as in the case of an earthquake which might be followed by aftershocks. The wheel of life: A property of these emotional cognitive attitudes is that they reduce the thresholds required to produce a specific emotional response.

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This requires pinpointing what these events are, as general ideas about the critical event do not necessarily express the specific conditions of that event that are acting to bring about the emotional response. Cognitive therapy lizargaga anxiety entrevusta Cognitive Appraisal during the Crisis Situation Understood motivaciohal Severe Stress A CS has all of the characteristics of a state of severe stress, although not every stress state can be considered a crisis. These authors characterize such factors in the following terms: Likewise, these empirical studies imply the development of systematic experiences of proactive modification of what has occurred in a CSin order to verify the predictions that can be made regarding treatment, whose characterization is made by way of BMI in CSwhich includes essential procedures of cognitive restructuring such as Socratic dialogue, of decision-making, as motivational interviewing, and of self-control of actions.


The chronology of the events influences considerably the commitment a person has to the particular event occurring in a CS. Significant changes of a negative sort in the value that the person grants to events occurring in other areas of her vital field different from the area of the CS generating event. The interactive theory about stress and coping proposed by Lazarus and Folkman bwhich analyzes stress as a process of interaction between external or internal threatening events and a person’s cognitive appraisal regarding the inherent harm to the event and regarding her own ability to deal with the threat.

Coping with a chronic event that has originated a crisis can become a challenge for the person, similar to the challenge of dealing with chronic physical pain, with the production of emotions more akin to those produced by the interpretation of challenge that favors the onset of instrumental situation management reactions, than to those produced by the interpretation of threat, which favors the onset of anxiety emotional reactions.

Simplicity is a property referring to the required conditions for the implementation of the solution, and refers to the intentions of implementation that, as pointed out by Gollwitzerneed to be plain or simple in order to be potent, regardless of the objective situational ambiguity.

The paper concludes with a summary of the three basic sources taken from the psychological literature to inform the design of the DPP-CS: THE AIM of this paper is to characterize a crisis situation CS as a psychobiological state of a person in which motivational alteration is prominent due to the impact of a deep alteration of an emotional sort originated in some external event of a harmful nature.

These two types of appraisal constitute, according to Lazarus and Folkman, the essence of secondary appraisal in stress situations. These are aspects of temporal parameter referring to the temporal imminence, duration, and incertitude.

In any CS the probability that the available information will generate incertitude in the person increases; in such a case, the role of situational ambiguity is mediated by subjective interpretations, with which the function of personal beliefs becomes more significant in the determination of the course that coping will take. That complex state of emotional experience during a CS makes it adopt a syndrome-like nature rather than one of pure expression of an isolated emotion.

As can be noticed in the examples provided, the CS by itself is a context in which a more molecular analysis is required in order to identify the singular properties of distress sensations and feelings, of their triggering stimuli, and of the anticipated consequences of control.

Functionally, objective harm and aversion inherent to the set of CS triggering stimuli act in the manner of a punishment, which facilitates the person’s eventually interpreting them as such, and her engaging in speculations about which behaviors her own and those of others have produced the supposed punishment, with the subsequent emotional consequences of self-blaming or blaming others.

Conclusions A conceptual model has been developed which allows explaining the events occurring in a normal crisis situation -normal in the sense that it has not adopted the shape of a mental disorder- and which allows orienting the counseling to the person experiencing it with the aim of fostering her control of what occurs and the search for adaptation.


American Psychologist50 The extended parallel process model. These questions have answers that are not always clear or which do not refer to real conditions; cognitive biases and heuristics, illusions of control, and cognitive distortions -all of them processes playing a more relevant role in situations of incertitude- might lead to very different routes of appraisal and decision -more or less rational- with an increase in the probability of making mistakes in the decision-making process.

In this search, as stated before, the appraisal of the efficacy of available response alternatives outcome expectation and that of the self-ability to perform them in a satisfactory way self-efficacy expectation are predominant. A cognitive aspect of particular relevance in this case is that referred to incertitude or clarity about those two expectations permanently interacting to determine the subsequent motivational course that the coping process will take, whether in the direction of control of the subjective emotion, or control of the objective harm.

Having these assessment instruments will make it possible to establish how appropriate DPP-CS is as an explanatory model of what occurs during a CS. Whereas it is difficult to make a distinction between these two emotions, they are two different emotional reactions Minsky, Wittein her proposal of dual extended parallel process model, argues that response efficacy outcome expectation is the preeminent factor determining that a coping action will assume the course of the control process for objective harm and will not stay only at the level of emotional control action, which is a course of defensive motivation characteristic of the control process of subjective fear.

Avances de la Disciplina6 1, in January, A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Lack of clarity regarding the causes often leads the person to make distorted attributions of self-blaming or blaming to others, with the resulting deepening of feelings of sadness and anger, and the alteration of social relationships. Psychological Review2 These are expectations about the instrumental potency a behavior has as an efficient means to lead to a particular outcome.

By the same token, it makes more sense to argue that the recurrence of the emotional experience of fear favors the filtering through a signification of harm that leads the person to hopelessness and depression than to propose that the fear stage is followed by the depression stage in the adaptive cycle.

A CS is a state of great psychobiological alteration, of varying duration and stages, subsequent to the reception of a signal announcing the event entrevjsta a significant loss and the danger of a deepening of the harm that has occurred.

Studies of motivation and attention. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: How to cite this article.