Ximi Elga


Unfortunately it did not succeed, so many critics and Zimbabweans blame ESAP, and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) that. An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe By David Coltart. 31st January Danish Volunteer Service Development Workers Meeting. ESAP in Zimbabwe came as a result of the lame economy that the new government inherited and the inappropriate economic policies adopted at independence.

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The initial economic shock treatment undertaken with ESAP’s launch in the early s hit the business sector and ordinary Zimbabweans very hard, and the impact of these measures was greatly exacerbated by the severe drought of the early s.

First known land reform zmbabwe Egypt. In some ways, it was a great success. Thirdly, increases in civil service employment and spending on social services led to high taxes and a serious budget deficit, which was financed by public borrowing.

We are seeing a drift from state ownership or state control to African styled privatisation in which the key players are well connected men and women not too far from the seats of power. Moreover, foreign agencies have shown increasing willingness to respond with pressure when government’s actions do not meet with their satisfaction.

Origins of the Zimbabwe crisis — Helen Suzman Foundation

However, the Bill, and especially the timing of its publication, has zimbbawe potential to stall the entire Structural Adjustment Programme. The latter also requires integrating retrenchment initiatives and strategic planning to ensure efficiency gains.

However, instead of yielding the desired results, ESAP made the economic situation worse. Instead elites accumulated, corruption extended and a new politics emerged. As in health, a steady brain drain in the s as teachers fed up with rising prices and deteriorating living and working conditions either moved into other occupations or emigrated to South Africa and Botswana, in search for greener pastures.


There must be a gradual progression towards allowing people to import what they want. The recovery in and from drought and the inevitable stresses ximbabwe by adjustment was rapid and robust, with significant increases in investment and growth.

And increasingly, Zimbabweans are making the links between ESAP, budget cuts and the decline in the national standard of living. If most households had sufficient income, this new order would not pose as much of a dilemma. All this suggests that rapid liberalisation was a serious mistake, and that what should have happened was gradual reforms combined with strong state controls. The new regime also introduced redistributive policies to reduce inequalities, including land redistribution in the early s, and big investments in health and education for the poor.

Zimbwbwe program was slow in getting started. Credible answers demand a rigorous re-examination of the policy programmes that led up to the onset of the crisis in the late s. As a result of ESAP, girls were reportedly dropping out of secondary school in Zimbabwe at This decrease implied diminished spending on common zimbsbwe, extension and preventative health services, specialist facilities and treatment, and other components of quality health care delivery.

As we look at what is happening in Zimbabwe it appears as if we are moving away from a centrally controlled economy to a free-market, capitalistic economy.

At that point exports were growing rapidly, the balance of payments was positive and foreign exchange freely available.

What does seem incontrovertible, is the augmented financial leverage afforded expatriate institutions – governmental, multilateral and private – in light of the growing fiscal crisis of the Zimbabwean state. Eswp relied on beneficiaries to apply for benefits, and the complicated and costly application process effectively excluded many of the poorest people, who had little access to government information.

Small scale hammer mills employed 7 permanent workers plus additional 3 causal workers.

Speech by David Coltart: An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe 1992

The Budget reinforces me in my view that Government is reluctant to give up a large degree of control over Zimbabwean society. The rhetoric of those involved is shocking.


The Zanu-PF government remained unwilling to zlmbabwe the emergence of independent black capitalist and working classes.

By Zimbabwe was undergoing what essentially amounted to a counter revolution as all the impressive gains made in the first decade of independence in education and health were eroded by ESAP. With subsidies on processed maize meal removed, small-scale hammer millers stepped in to produce straight-run maize meal which is nutritionally better than roller meal at prices comparable to or lower than the old subsidized price of roller meal.

Zimbabwean industry was an easy convert, but the country’s political leadership was less easily swayed. These factors all combined to produce the disappointing results identified earlier. However, President Mugabe has stood firm on his beliefs and disregards the conditions set by the IMF and World Bank because they are not compatible with the demands of the development in Zimbabwe and other developing nations, especially in Africa.

The one exception in this regard – large real growth in capital spending much of it construction – has been heavily dependent on donor injections of capital, and has raised further questions about how government will manage to meet new recurrent expenditures in a period of public service retrenchments and declining recurrent spending.

The focus was on the formal sector as the engine of growth.

Yet ESAP is zimbavwe seen as an almost unmitigated failure. Unfortunately the results were much less than satisfactory. Help Center Find new research papers in: