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JAMUR BASIDIOMYCOTA PDF

Basidiomycetes occupy many niches in the environment, including dan karakterisasi morfologi isolat jamur Basidiomycetes seperti laju. Keanekaragaman Jamur Basidiomycota Di kawasan Gunung Bawakaraeng ( Studi Kasus: Kawasan Sekitar Desa Lembanna Kecamatan Tinggi Moncong. designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi Ciri-ciri Basidiomycota Bentuk Jamur BASIDIOMYCOTA TubuhJamur basidiomycota. Reproduksi Aseksual.

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More specifically, Basidiomycota includes these groups: Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae except for basidiomycota-yeast; refer yeast for more information and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores usually four. These specialized spores are called homosapiomedasin. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually discussed below can be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature the clamp connection — see belowcell basidiomycotaa components, and definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data.

The most recent classification [3] adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla PucciniomycotinaUstilaginomycotinaAgaricomycotina and two other class level taxa WallemiomycetesEntorrhizomycetes outside of these, among the Basidiomycta. As baeidiomycota classified, the subphyla join and also cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups see below previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota.

According to a estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla including six unassigned classes 16 classes, 52 orders, families, 1, genera, and 31, species. Previously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetesan invalid class level name coined in as a counterpart to the Ascomyceteswhen neither of these taxa were recognized as basidiomycita.

The terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are frequently used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. They are often abbreviated to “basidios” and “ascos” as mycological slang. The Agaricomycotina include what had previously been called the Hymenomycetes an obsolete morphological based class of Basidiomycota that formed hymenial layers on their fruitbodiesthe Gasteromycetes another obsolete class that included species mostly lacking hymenia and mostly forming spores in enclosed fruitbodiesas well as most of the jelly fungi.

The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetesthe Dacrymycetesand the Tremellomycetes. The class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina. The basidiomycots classes in the Pucciniomycotina are AgaricostilbomycetesAtractiellomycetesClassiculomycetesBadidiomycotaCystobasidiomycetesMicrobotryomycetesMixiomycetesand Pucciniomycetes.

The Ustilaginomycotina are most but not all of the former smut fungi and the Exobasidiales. The classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetesthe Entorrhizomycetes, and the Ustilaginomycetes. Unlike animals and basidiomycita which have readily recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota except for the Basidiomjcota Pucciniales tend basidiomycotta have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are usually mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae.

Typically haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and then the compatible nuclei migrate into each other’s mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei. Karyogamy is delayed, so that the compatible nuclei remain in pairs, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are then said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the haploid basidiomydota are called monokaryons. Often, the dikaryotic mycelium is vasidiomycota vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia, and proceeds to take over the substrate in which they are growing.

The dikaryons can be long-lived, lasting years, decades, or centuries. The monokaryons are neither male nor female. They have either a bipolar unifactorial or a tetrapolar bifactorial mating system.

The maintenance of the dikaryotic status in dikaryons in many Basidiomycota is facilitated by the formation of clamp connections that physically appear to help coordinate and re-establish pairs of compatible nuclei following synchronous mitotic nuclear divisions. Variations are frequent and bazidiomycota. In a typical Basidiomycota lifecycle the long lasting dikaryons periodically seasonally or occasionally produce basidiathe specialized usually club-shaped end cells, in which a pair of compatible nuclei fuse karyogamy to form a diploid cell.

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Meiosis follows shortly with the production of 4 haploid nuclei that migrate into 4 external, usually apical basidiospores.

Typically the basidiospores are ballistichence they are sometimes also called ballistospores. In most species, the basidiospores disperse and each can start a new haploid mycelium, continuing the lifecycle. Basidia are microscopic but they are often produced on or in multicelled large fructifications called basidiocarps or basidiomes, or fruitbodiesvariously called mushroomspuffballsetc.

Ballistic basidiospores are formed on sterigmata which are tapered spine-like projections on basidia, and are typically curved, like the horns of a bull. In some Basidiomycota the spores are not ballistic, and the sterigmata may be straight, reduced to stubbs, or absent. The basidiospores of these non-ballistosporic basidia may either bud off, or be released via dissolution or disintegration of the basidia.

In summary, meiosis takes place in a diploid basidium. Each one of the four haploid nuclei migrates into its own basidiospore. The basidiospores are ballistically discharged and start new haploid mycelia called monokaryons. There are no males or females, rather there are compatible thalli with multiple compatibility factors. Plasmogamy between compatible individuals leads to delayed karyogamy leading to establishment of a dikaryon.

The dikaryon is long lasting but ultimately gives rise to either fruitbodies with basidia or directly to basidia without fruitbodies. The paired dikaryon in the basidium fuse i. The diploid basidium begins the cycle again. Coprinopsis cinerea is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom. It is particularly suited to the study of meiosis because meiosis progresses synchronously in about 10 million cells within the mushroom cap, and the meiotic prophase stage is prolonged.

These similarities in the patterns of expression led to the conclusion that the core expression program of meiosis has been conserved in these fungi for over half a billion years of evolution since these species diverged. Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis are examples of pathogenic basidiomycota.

Such pathogens must be able to overcome the oxidative defenses of their respective hosts in order to produce a successful infection. The ability to undergo meiosis may provide a survival benefit for these fungi by promoting successful infection. A characteristic central feature of meiosis is recombination between homologous chromosomes. This process is associated with repair of DNA damages, particularly double-strand breaks.

The ability of C. Some are self-compatible and spontaneously form basidiojycota without a separate compatible thallus being involved. These fungi are said to be homothallic, versus the normal heterothallic species with mating types. Others are secondarily homothallic, in that two compatible nuclei following meiosis migrate into mamur basidiospore, which is then dispersed as a pre-existing dikaryon.

Often such species basidiomycoha only two spores per basidium, but that too varies. Following meiosis, mitotic divisions can occur in the basidium. Multiple numbers of basidiospores can result, including odd jaur via degeneration of nuclei, or pairing up of nuclei, or lack of migration of nuclei. For example, the chanterelle genus Craterellus often has six-spored basidia, while some corticioid Sistotrema species can have two- four- six- or eight-spored basidia, and the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

Occasionally, monokaryons of some taxa can form morphologically fully formed basidiomes and anatomically correct basidia and ballistic basidiospores in the absence of dikaryon formation, diploid nuclei, and meiosis.

A rare few number of taxa have extended diploid lifecycles, but can be common species. Examples exist in the mushroom genera Basidiomycotw and Xerulaboth in the Physalacriaceae. Occasionally, basidiospores are not formed and parts of the “basidia” act as the dispersal agents, e. In the human pathogenic genus Cryptococcusfour nuclei following meiosis remain in the basidium, but continually divide mitotically, each nucleus migrating into synchronously forming nonballistic basidiospores that are then pushed upwards by another set forming below them, resulting in four parallel chains of dry “basidiospores”.

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Other variations occur, some as standard lifecycles that themselves have variations within variations within specific orders. Rusts Puccinialespreviously known as Uredinales at their greatest complexity, produce five different types of spores on two different host plants in two unrelated host families. Such rusts are heteroecious requiring two hosts and macrocyclic producing all five spores types. Wheat stem rust is an example. By convention, the stages and spore states are numbered by Roman numerals.

Typically, basidiospores infect host one, also known as the alternate or sexual host, the mycelium forms pycnidiawhich are miniature, flask-shaped, hollow, submicroscopic bodies embedded in host tissue such as a leaf. This stage, numbered “0”, produces single-celled spores that ooze out in a sweet liquid and that act as nonmotile spermatiaand also protruding receptive hyphae. Insects and probably other vectors such as rain carry the basidiomtcota from spermagonium to spermagonium, cross inoculating the mating types.

Neither thallus is male or female. Once bassidiomycota, the dikaryons are established and a second bzsidiomycota stage is formed, numbered “I” and called aeciawhich form dikaryotic aeciospores in dry chains basidioomycota inverted cup-shaped bodies embedded in host tissue.

Agaricaceae

These aeciospores then infect the second host, known as the primary or asexual host in macrocyclic rusts. On the primary host a repeating spore stage is formed, numbered “II”, the urediospores vasidiomycota dry pustules called uredinia.

Urediospores are dikaryotic and can infect the same host that produced them. They repeatedly infect this host over the growing season.

Basidiomycota – Wikipedia

At the end of the season, a fourth spore type, the teliosporeis formed. It is thicker-walled and serves to overwinter or to survive other harsh conditions. It does not continue the infection process, rather it remains dormant for a period and then germinates to form basidia stage “IV”sometimes called a promycelium.

In the Pucciniales, the basidia are cylindrical and become 3- septate after meiosis, with each of the 4 cells bearing basidiomyckta basidiospore each. The basidiospores disperse and start the infection process on host 1 again.

Autoecious rusts complete their life-cycles basidiomycotw one host instead of two, and microcyclic rusts cut out one or more stages. The characteristic part of the life-cycle of smuts is the thick-walled, often darkly pigmented, ornate, teliospore that serves to survive harsh conditions such as overwintering and also serves to help disperse the fungus as dry diaspores. The teliospores are initially dikaryotic but become diploid via karyogamy. Meiosis takes place at the time of germination.

A promycelium is formed that consists of a short hypha equated to a basidium.

Basidiojycota some smuts such as Ustilago maydis the nuclei migrate into the promycelium that becomes septate i. In various smuts, the yeast phase may proliferate, or they may fuse, or they may infect plant tissue and become hyphal. In other smuts, such as Tilletia cariesthe elongated haploid basidiospores form apically, often in compatible pairs that fuse centrally resulting in “H”-shaped diaspores which are by then dikaryotic.

Dikaryotic conidia may then form. Eventually the host is infected by infectious hyphae. Teliospores form in host tissue.

Many variations on these general themes occur. Smuts with both a yeast phase and an infectious hyphal state are examples of dimorphic Basidiomycota. Basidiomyycota plant parasitic taxa, the saprotrophic phase is normally the yeast while the infectious stage is hyphal. However, there are examples of animal and human parasites where the species are dimorphic but it is the yeast-like state that is infectious.