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Industrial furnace. Fig. 3 Schematic representation of the Kyropoulos method. Pull. Seed. Crucible. Crystal. Melt. Bottom heater. Thermal insulation. Side heater . The Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth was discovered in by Jan In the Kyropoulos method, pure alumina powder is placed in a crucible and. Kyropoulos method. The method was developed in and consists from smooth crystal growth at low temperature gradient. And lowered melt level.

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The relation between the cooling and pulling rates at different stages of the growth process defines the crystal shape and quality to a considerable extent. The largest application of the Kyropoulos process is to grow large boules of single crystal sapphire used to produce substrates for the manufacture gallium nitride -based LEDsand as a durable optical material. The furnace is evacuated and heated to melt the crackle while keeping the seed just below its melting point by passing helium gas through the heat exchanger beneath the center of the crucible.

In LaBelle used his method to produce the first as-grown sapphire tubes. The resulting process was essentially a Czochralski technique with the benefit of crystal shape control. The resulting sapphire has good optical qualities, and is used widely in lasers, infrared and ultraviolet windows, transparent electronic substrates, high-temperature process windows, and other optical applications.

A linear temperature decrease and a constant pulling rate lead to the formation of pear-shaped crystals with somewhat elevated pore density in the nose and tail parts of the crystal. One of the automation methods uses weighing facilities.


Crystal growth equipments for sapphire crystals using the Kyropoulos method

The process also allows for tight control over crystal orientation. At the final stage of growth the conditions change again. A Reprint Collection”, Ed.

Instead of dipping his pen in its inkwell, he mistakenly dipped it in the crucible and quickly pulled it out. The rate of crystallization rises and its direction. Bliss, in “50 Years of Progress in Crystal Growth: Method for growing large-size high-temperature oxide crystal through for top-seeded temperature gradient technique.

Handbook of Crystal Growth 2nd ed. Czochralski Method CZ The Czochralski CZ method of crystal growth was discovered in by Jan Czochralski — and was the fortunate result of an accident and insightful observation.

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When the crystal diameter becomes comparable to the inside diameter of the crucible, the course of the crystallization process changes and the level of melt in the crucible becomes lower.

Unidirectional solidified silicon ingot and manufacturing method thereof, silicon plate, substrate mfthod solar cell and target base material for sputtering. Continuously changing conditions of heat exchange and difficulties of controlling the course of crystal growth necessitate automation of the process. Verneuil developed a flame fusion process to produce ruby and sapphire.

This growth technique is ideal for materials with low thermal conductivity and a high degree of thermal expansion, the combination of which can make crystal material vulnerable to various imperfections unless grown and cooled in a low-stress environment.

Method for heating and melting materials in growth of sapphire single crystals by Kyropoulos method and application thereof. The first of these is observed at the initial growth stage and corresponds to the increase in radiant heat removal from the growing seed. The resulting methhod typically have curved growth striations, which limits their use in optical applications.


The sizes of sapphire crystals grown by the Kyropoulos process have increased kyropojlos since the s. Result of this is crystallization of the end of a refrigerator with the subsequent formation of hemisphere.

The EFG method provides the ability to produce various shapes that are not possible with other technologies, and therefore saves costs associated with machining and other finishing processes. Method for restraining bulbs in process of growing slice-shaped sapphire in guiding mold mode. Attempts to produce extra large boules using this method have proven largely unsuccessful kgropoulos to cracking during the cooling process.

Example particular embodiment of the present process is as follows: With this highly controlled thermal-gradient, the Kyropoulos method yields large-diameter boules of very high optical quality due to its high purity. Kyropoulos introduced his technique as a way of producing large single crystals that were free of cracks and damage due to restricted containment.

Double-cavity heat-insulation cage of second kyrkpoulos crystal silicon ingot production furnace. The invention provides a Kyropoulos method for quickly growing a large-size sapphire single metuod.