Ximi Elga


El Estado federal y el Estado de Guatemala (). 2. La restauración ley positiva, creada por un Parlamento o Asamblea nacional y, en consecuencia la y Agropecuarias (Iema) por el impuesto extraordinario y. 4 Se dio un. salarios públicos en los primeros meses de , se aprueba la ley del impuesto mecanismos de diálogo de la reforma tributaria en Guatemala, mecanismo de .. alcohólicas, la salida del país, el petróleo crudo y combustible, el IEMA y el. Guatemala: La tributación directa, la evasión sobre el impuesto a la renta y .. Eso es lo que justifica la generalización de leyes e instituciones en Guatemala, sin embargo, el impuesto a los activos (IEMA) grava a la tasa.

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There are examples of successful collaboration between universities and the private sector, including in fields such as sugar, cement and IT, as well as another initiative meant to support SMEs.

Of course it is possible that in the sixties and seventies economic growth was not relying on large capital investments and therefore credit constraints although present were not constraining growth i. Growth and Guatemapa in Guatemala 70 delays. The Constitution protects freedom of enterprise, commerce and labor, also prohibiting Tearing Down the Wall: Governance sets the overall framework for the investment climate, which is in turn a key determinant of investment returns on a risk-adjusted basis.

Whereas telecommunications and electricity boomed following liberalization in the nineties, roads and seaports remained stuck in the past and failed to live up guuatemala their full potential. Loening analyzes the relationship between economic growth and education in Guatemala using time series and an error correction model.

In general, it can be concluded that the rate of capital accumulation in Guatemala both private and public is insufficient to support the levels of buatemala growth necessary to reduce poverty.

Guatemala has a liberal regulatory environment for telecommunications Decree introduced a new legal framework in the telecommunications market.


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In the time series analysis, average years of schooling is strongly correlated with per capita growth. Nevertheless, informal capital accumulation held its ground even after the reversal of private capital accumulation in the formal sector in the late nineties.

Private sector participation in ports is limited. Adjustment to economic shocks In recent years, Guatemala has been subjected to several economic shocks, both internal and external. Growth and Inclusion in Guatemala guatemsla and the Caribbean region only Haiti reported lower investment ratios than Guatemala 5.

The sector spans many areas of activity, including energy, telecommunications, transportation, water and sewage, ports and airports, housing, school buildings and hospitals.

This evidence suggests that human capital might be a binding constraint, something we analyze further next. The very high returns iems schooling for Guatemala is consistent with the fact that Guatemalan workers are among the least educated in Latin America, and the fact that education has improved significantly but returns have not fallen drastically as it happened in other Latin American countries which gguatemala significant increases in education, such as Honduras. The fact that informality is endogenous does not necessarily mean that informality has not 5 The literature on compliance costs see Auguste for a survey shows that usually there are large le of scale, what means these costs are regressive, and therefore the incentive to become informal higher for smaller iemma.

At this point, informality becomes not only a symptom but also a factor constraining growth. Loening incorporates human capital, proxied as years of schooling, whereas Harberger uses his two-deflator method Harbergerleaving improvements in human capital as part of TFP. For instance, informality is less likely in export-oriented activities since law enforcement is easier in this case.

Policy reforms in overlapping waves The transition to democracy in the mid eighties triggered successive waves of overlapping policy reforms.

Tearing Down the Walls: Growth and Inclusion in Guatemala

In the last 35 years, Guatemala has been one of the countries in Latin America with the lowest ratio of gross fixed capital formation to GDP. The difference seems to be the methodological approach. World Development Indicators Country Figure 6. Its aim is to find a more sustainable solution to long-standing shortcomings in fiscal policy.


Growth and Inclusion in Guatemala 7 guatwmala Fitted values 9 10 50 Human capital and informality If the informal sector demands less human capital than the formal sector, then the increase in informality observed in Guatemala could have limited incentives for the accumulation of human capital This cluster seems to include many small and island economies, several oil-exporting countries, and comparatively few low-income countries.

Tearing Down the Walls: Growth and Inclusion in Guatemala

The credit to formal GDP is not so low for this subgroup, and the availability of resources seems sufficient but, despite these seemingly favorable circumstances, investment in the formal sector has failed to pick up on a sustained basis. However, private investment is not motivated by social but by private returns.

In countries where price distortions have had a significant effect guatemaal the economy, such as Argentina in the 70s and 80s, the most important factor is the interaction effect. Growth and Inclusion in Guatemala 53 Figure We analyze the ranking of Guatemala on each group compared to the rest of the countries and controlling by income level. Quality of governance Governance indexes tend to exhibit high positive correlations with per capita GDP growth.

According to the World Report on Information Technology released in early Guatemala ranks behind El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama in the use of information technology, although it still comes ahead of Honduras and Nicaragua.